Srimad Bhagavatam 11.02.22-26(A) - Being Happy Seeing Devotees of Krishna (download mp3)
by Bhakti Rasamrita Swami at ISKCON Chowpatty
ta ete bhagavad-rupam
pasyanto vyacaran mahim
These sages wandered the earth seeing the entire universe, with all its gross and subtle objects, as a manifestation of the Supreme Lord and as nondifferent from the self.
According to Srila Sridhara Svami, it is clearly demonstrated in this and the following verse that the nine saintly sons of Rsabhadeva known as the nava-yogendras were situated in the highest stage of spiritual perfection, called paramahamsya-caritam, or “having fully developed the character of paramahamsas.” In other words, they were pure devotees of the Lord. According to Sridhara Svami and Jiva Gosvami, the words atmano ’vyatirekena indicate that the nine sages saw the universe as being nondifferent from themselves as well as nondifferent from the Supreme Soul, Lord Krsna. Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura has additionally commented, atmanah paramatmanah sakasad avyatirekena, visvasya tac-chakti-mayatvad iti bhavah: “Atmanah indicates the Supersoul. This universe is not different from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Paramatma, since the entire universe is composed of His energy.”
Although it is stated here that the cosmic manifestation is nondifferent from both the living entity and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one should not think that either the living entity or the Supreme Lord is material. A Vedic aphorism states, asango hy ayam purusah: “The living entity and the Supreme Personality of Godhead have nothing to do with the material world.” Furthermore, Bhagavad-gita says that the entire universe, consisting of eight gross and subtle elements, constitutes the bhinna prakrti, or apara prakrti — the separated, inferior energy — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Lord Krsna clearly states in Bhagavad-gita that He has eternally established His own abode in the kingdom of God, where life is eternal, full of bliss and knowledge, and that the living entity, being part and parcel of God, is also eternal (mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah). Furthermore, once having gone to that eternal abode of the Lord the living entity never returns to this temporary manifestation (yam prapya na nivartante tad dhama paramam mama).
One may therefore ask why the living entity and the Supreme Lord are stated to be nondifferent from the material universe. The question is very nicely answered by Srila Narada Muni in the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.5.20). Idam hi visvam bhagavan ivetaro yato jagat-sthana-nirodha-sambhavah: “The Supreme Lord Personality of Godhead is Himself this cosmos, and still He is aloof from it. From Him only has this cosmic manifestation emanated, in Him it rests, and unto Him it enters after annihilation.” Commenting on Narada’s statement, Srila Prabhupada has very nicely explained this delicate philosophical point: “For a pure devotee, the conception of Mukunda, Lord Sri Krsna, is both personal and impersonal. The impersonal cosmic situation is also Mukunda because it is the emanation of the energy of Mukunda. For example, a tree is a complete unit, whereas the leaves and branches of the tree are emanated parts and parcels of the tree. The leaves and branches of the tree are also the tree, but the tree itself is neither the leaves nor the branches. The Vedic version that the whole cosmic creation is nothing but Brahman means that since everything is emanating from the Supreme Brahman, nothing is apart from Him. Similarly, the part-and-parcel hands and legs are called the body, but the body as the whole unit is neither the hands nor the legs. The Lord is the transcendental form of eternity, cognition and beauty. And thus the creation of the energy of the Lord appears to be partially eternal, full of knowledge and beautiful also.…
“According to the Vedic version, the Lord is naturally fully powerful, and thus His supreme energies are always perfect and identical with Him. Both the spiritual and the material skies and their paraphernalia are emanations of the internal and external energies of the Lord. External energy is comparatively inferior, whereas the internal potency is superior. The superior energy is living force, and therefore she is completely identical [with the Lord], but the external energy, being inert, is partially identical. But both the energies are neither equal to nor greater than the Lord, who is the generator of all energies; such energies are always under His control, exactly as electrical energy, however powerful it may be, is always under the control of the engineer.
“The human being and all other living beings are products of His internal energies. Thus the living being is also identical with the Lord. But he is never equal or superior to the Personality of Godhead.”
Srila Prabhupada has clearly explained here that both the cosmic manifestation and the living entities are emanations from the Supreme Lord, as confirmed both in Vedanta-sutra and in the opening statement of Srimad-Bhagavatam. Janmady asya yatah: “The Absolute Truth is that from which everything emanates.” Similarly, the Isopanisad states:
om purnam adah purnam idam
purnat purnam udacyate
purnasya purnam adaya
The Supreme Lord, the Absolute Truth, is purna, or complete in Himself. And since this cosmic world is a manifestation of His potency, it also appears to be purna. In other words, because this material world is an emanation from the Supreme Lord, it is nondifferent from Him, exactly as the sun’s rays are nondifferent from the sun globe, which is the source of their emanation. Similarly the living beings, who are expansions of the superior, or conscious, energy of the Supreme Lord, are also nondifferent from Krsna, although this nondifference is qualitative and not quantitative. The gold found in golden ornaments such as rings and bracelets is qualitatively identical with the gold in a mine, but the gold in the mine is quantitatively far superior to the tiny quantity of gold in a bracelet or ring. Similarly, although we are qualitatively one with God, being spiritual emanations of His unlimited potency, we are quantitatively infinitesimal and eternally subordinate to His supreme power. Therefore the Lord is called vibhu, or infinitely potent, and we are anu, or infinitesimal and dependent. This is further confirmed in the Vedic literature by the statement nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam/ eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman (Katha Upanisad 2.2.13). There are innumerable eternal living entities who are eternally and totally dependent upon the supreme singular living entity, the Supreme Lord. That dependence is not an illusion created by material existence, as stated by the impersonalist philosophers, but is an eternal relationship in which the Lord is eternally superior and we are eternally inferior. The Lord is eternally independent, and we are eternally dependent. The Lord is eternally absolute in Himself, and we are eternally relative to His supreme personality.
Although the Lord is infinitely greater than any other living being, or than all of them combined, every living being is qualitatively nondifferent from the Lord, because all living beings are parts and parcels emanating from Him (mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah). Therefore, in one sense, the living entity is also not different from the material cosmic manifestation, which is an inferior sister energy of the Lord. Both the living entity and the material nature are prakrti, or feminine, dependent expansions of the supreme purusa. The difference is that the living entity is the superior energy of the Lord, because the living entity is conscious and eternal like the Lord, whereas material energy is the inferior energy of the Lord, lacking consciousness and eternal form.
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura has emphasized in this regard that the absolute substance is one and is called Paramatma, or the Supersoul. When one has achieved but a partial vision of the Paramatma, one’s understanding of life is called atma-darsana, or self-realization. And when even this partial understanding is lacking, one’s existential condition is called anatma-darsana, or ignorance of the self. In the state of partial realization of the Supersoul, without recognition of the Paramatma’s distinction from the individual soul, the living entity tends to become puffed up by his spiritual achievement, be carried away by mental concoction, and consider himself equal in all respects with God. On the other hand, the living entity situated in anatma-darsana, or material ignorance, feels that he is completely different from the Supreme Lord; and since everyone in this material world is interested in himself, the living entity forgets about God, thinking that God is completely different from him and that there is therefore no substantial relationship between him and God. In this way the impersonal transcendentalists emphasize only the oneness between God and the living entity, whereas the ordinary materialists overemphasize the difference between God and the living entity. But Caitanya Mahaprabhu has clearly revealed that the Ultimate Truth is simultaneous oneness and difference (acintya-bhedabheda-tattva). Actually we are eternally different from God. Because the living entity and God are eternally separate individual entities, there exists the possibility of an eternal relationship. And because every living entity is qualitatively one with the Supreme Lord, that relationship constitutes the essence of the ultimate reality for every living being. As stated in the Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 20.108), jivera ‘svarupa’ haya — krsnera ‘nitya-dasa.’ The ultimate essential identity of every living entity is his relationship with the Supreme Lord as a servitor of the Lord.
If one can understand that he is an eternal servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one can correctly understand that both the living entity and the material universe are identical with Krsna, being emanations from Him, and that they are therefore nondifferent from each other. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati has stated, “The material world is a manifestation of simultaneous difference and nondifference, and it is a form of the Supreme Lord. Thus the temporary, perishable and ever-changing material world is different from Vaikuntha, the eternal world.”
It should be noted that in this verse the word sad-asad-atmakam, or “made up of gross and subtle objects,” does not refer to material and spiritual objects. This universe is stated to be composed of sat and asat, gross and subtle material objects. According to Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, “The very subtle state within the manifest world is known as ‘the unmanifest,’ and the realm beyond the manifest world is called ‘transcendental.’ Within the coverings surrounding the manifest, in the region of the time factor, is the phase of material existence experienced by the controlling deities; in this phase exist the two functions: cause (asat) and effect (sat). In the universe, which is a third tattva, or reality (apart from and containing both sat and asat), and which is a form of the Supreme Lord, it is impossible to produce any contradiction to the nondual Absolute Truth.” In other words, although ignorant, materialistic scientists may zealously carry out research to find a material principle that can negate or render unnecessary the existence of God, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati clearly states that since the universe is an emanation from the Lord and therefore spiritually identical with Him, there cannot possibly exist anywhere within the universe a material law, principle or phenomenon that in any way contradicts the supremacy of the Personality of Godhead. In fact, the entire universe, along with the spiritual sky, exists as eternal testimony to the unlimited glory of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna. With this understanding, the nine Yogendras were traveling about the earth in transcendental bliss.
muktas caranti muni-carana-bhutanatha-
vidyadhara-dvija-gavam bhuvanani kamam
The nine Yogendras are liberated souls who travel freely to the planets of the demigods, the perfected mystics, the Sadhyas, the heavenly musicians, the Yaksas, the human beings, and the minor demigods such as the Kinnaras and the serpents. No mundane force can check their free movement, and exactly as they wish they can travel as well to the worlds of the sages, the angels, the ghostly followers of Lord Siva, the Vidyadharas, the brahmanas and the cows.
ta ekada nimeh satram
Once in Ajanabha [the former name of the earth], they came upon the sacrificial performance of the great soul Maharaja Nimi, which was being carried out under the direction of elevated sages.
tan drstva surya-sankasan
yajamano ’gnayo viprah
My dear King, seeing those pure devotees of the Lord, who rival the sun in brilliance, everyone present — the performer of the sacrifice, the brahmanas and even the sacrificial fires — stood in respect.
videhas tan abhipretya
pritah sampujayam cakre
King Videha [Nimi] understood that the nine sages were exalted devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore, overjoyed at their auspicious arrival, he offered them suitable sitting places and worshiped them in a proper way, just as one would worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
The word yatharhatah is significant here. According to Visvanatha Cakravarti the word yatharhatah means yathocitam, or “according to the proper etiquette.” It is clearly mentioned here that the nava-yogendras are narayana-parayana, exalted devotees of the Supreme Lord, Narayana, or Krsna. Therefore, the word yatharhatah indicates that the King worshiped the nine sages according to the standard Vaisnava etiquette. The etiquette for worshiping exalted Vaisnavas is expressed by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura with the words saksad-dharitvena samasta-sastraih: an exalted Vaisnava, being totally surrendered to the will of the Supreme Lord, is taken to be a transparent medium for the Lord’s will. In the Caitanya-caritamrta it is stated that even by a moment’s association with the pure devotees of the Lord one can achieve all perfection in life. Therefore, as indicated by the word pritah, King Nimi was overjoyed by the auspicious arrival of the sages, and therefore he worshiped them just as one would worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Although impersonalist philosophers claim that every living entity is equal to God, they callously step over the heads of their so-called spiritual masters and freely speculate on the nature of the Absolute, giving their own whimsical opinions in defiance of the impersonal whims of their so-called gurus. In other words, although Mayavadi impersonalists claim that everyone is God, they ultimately show an offensive mentality toward the Supreme Personality of Godhead in rejecting the reality of His eternal form and pastimes. Thus, they unwittingly belittle the eternal position of all living beings by denying their eternal personality and activities in the kingdom of God. The impersonalists, through their mental concoctions, try to minimize the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the living entities who are part of Him, reducing them theoretically to a formless, nameless light, which by their concoction they claim to be the Absolute God. The Vaisnavas, however, welcome the Supreme Personality of Godhead and easily understand that the unlimited Supreme Personality has nothing to do with the conditioned, limited, mundane personalities we find in the material world. The impersonalists arrogantly assume that there could not be any transcendental or unlimited personality beyond our present experience. But the Vaisnavas intelligently understand that there are many wonderful things far beyond our limited experience. Therefore they accept the words of Krsna, who states in Bhagavad-gita (15.19):
yo mam evam asammudho
sa sarva-vid bhajati mam
“Whoever knows Me as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, without doubting, is the knower of everything, and he therefore engages himself in full devotional service, O son of Bharata.” In this connection Srila Prabhupada states, “There are many philosophical speculations about the constitutional position of the living entities and the Supreme Absolute Truth. Now in this verse the Supreme Personality of Godhead clearly explains that anyone who knows Lord Krsna as the Supreme Person is actually the knower of everything. The imperfect knower goes on simply speculating about the Absolute Truth, but the perfect knower, without wasting his valuable time, engages directly in Krsna consciousness, the devotional service of the Supreme Lord.… It is not that one should simply speculate academically. One should submissively hear from Bhagavad-gita that these living entities are always subordinate to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Anyone who is able to understand this, according to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, knows the purpose of the Vedas; no one else knows the purpose of the Vedas.” Therefore, exalted devotees such as the nine Yogendras always accept the supremacy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as expressed here by the word narayana-parayanan.
King Nimi was a Vaisnava, and therefore he worshiped the great sages with the same respect with which he would worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as shown by the word yatharhatah. Although impersonalists falsely claim that every living entity is equal to God, they cannot properly respect any living being, because of their original offense at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality. Their so-called worship, even of their own gurus, is ultimately self-serving and opportunistic. When an impersonalist imagines that he has become God, he has no further need for his so-called guru. The Vaisnava, however, because he accepts the supremacy of the eternal Personality of Godhead, is ready and willing to offer eternal respect to all living beings, especially to those most fortunate living beings who have achieved shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord. A Vaisnava’s worship of the Lord’s representative is not self-serving or opportunistic, but is an expression of eternal love for the Lord and His representatives, as indicated here by the word pritah. Therefore it is clear from this verse that not only the nine exalted sons of Rsabhadeva but also King Nimi himself were all great devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, in defiance of the artificial and limited concept of impersonalism.